Laryngeal cancer is an oncological disease characterized by the formation of a malignant tumor from the nonkeratinized laryngeal epithelium. This type of cancer is considered a serious disease, so treating laryngeal cancer abroad is sometimes the only way to get rid of the disease and get back to a full, healthy life. Laryngeal cancer accounts for approximately 2% of the total number of oncological diseases and affects men 9 times more often than women.
Causes and first signs
There are a number of factors that cause the mentioned disease. Most often, it affects heavy smokers; therefore, exactly smoking is the main and leading cause of the development of laryngeal cancer.
Another common cause is insufficient and improper oral care. If neglecting oral hygiene, the risk of developing inflammatory diseases of the teeth and gums increases significantly. In the future, these inflammatory diseases can acquire a chronic form and lead to cancer. Especially carefully and thorough oral hygiene should be taken into account by them who have a hereditary predisposition to cancer.
Harmful work conditions can also cause laryngeal cancer. Harmful industries should include repair, paintwork, chemical and other types of industries where a large number of harmful substances constantly release. This also includes contact with radioactive substances, as well as continuous radioactive exposure for a long time.
Other reasons also include age (from 50 years and older), the presence of tumors in the throat and poor ecological conditions in the place of living.
As for the signs of laryngeal cancer, there are a number of common symptoms that may indicate the presence of cancer and serve as a reason for examination. Moreover, this pathology can manifest itself differently in men and women. This is because of the fact, that since the main cause of this type of cancer is smoking, which men often abuse; the symptoms of smokers are usually men's characters. Symptoms in women:
During the early stages of the disease, the patient may notice the following symptoms:
Symptoms in men:
- Impaired taste;
- Sore throat and discomfort when swallowing;
- Feeling of a foreign body in the throat, which interferes with swallowing;
- Hoarseness, loss of voice (sharp or gradual);
- Prolonged dry cough;
- Bad night’s sleep;
- Ear pain;
- Decreased appetite leading to weight loss;
- Worsening of general condition and chronic fatigue;
- Swelling in the neck;
Male symptoms include all of the above symptoms, in many cases, symptoms are accompanied by dry cough and nosebleeds. In addition, blood streaks are quite common in sputum. These symptoms can be mistaken for ordinary signs of long-term smoking, which leads to late diagnosis.
Laryngeal cancer: grades
Like any other oncological disease, laryngeal cancer has several grades: zero, first, second, third and fourth.
It is usually called a precancerous condition. This disease is diagnosed at the zero stage quite rarely, and therefore treatment begins in the later stages. This, unfortunately, significantly reduces the chances of recovery and therefore characterizes laryngeal cancer as one of the most complex oncological diseases.
At this stage, any symptoms are practically absent. The only sign that can speak of the formation of a tumor is a slight discomfort in the throat, which is often associated with a common cold. However, in the event that laryngeal cancer is diagnosed at zero grade, a likelihood of the positive prognosis is more than 95%, including five-year survival.
At this stage, the first, more obvious signs of the disease are already emerging. These include throat congestion and pain when swallowing and talking. At this stage, the tumor is still small and does not extend beyond the larynx. Metastasis to other departments and systems of the body is also absent. If treatment is started on time, then the five-year survival rate is up to 85%.
With the transition of the disease to the second stage, the tumor usually grows beyond the limits of one part of the larynx. Due to the fact that other parts of the throat and larynx are affected, the main signs are a change in voice and a decrease in speech quality. Since metastases during the second grade are usually not observed, the survival rate remains high - about 80%.
The tumor continues to grow, which causes noticeable discomfort to the patient. In connection with the defeat of the vocal cords, constant hoarseness of the voice or its complete loss may be observed. Among the patients with the third grade of cancer, appears also a violation of swallowing reflex, which entails a loss of appetite and rapid weight loss. The positive prognosis is low - about 50% with the right treatment and successful rehabilitation.
At this grade, metastases spread to other organs and systems - often to the lymphatic. Since cancer cells spread through the bloodstream throughout the body, a positive outcome is unlikely. Five-year survival in the fourth stage is not more than 20%.
Types of Laryngeal Cancer
Three types of laryngeal cancer are distinguished depending on the localization of tumor:
- Tumor of the anterior ligamentous region. This type is the most common and accounts for 65-70% of the total number of laryngeal tumors. Tumors in the area have quite an aggressive nature and grow quickly into other organs and systems. With an untimely diagnosis, survival lasts no more than 2 years;
- Tumor of the ligamentous region. Compared to the previous type of tumor, this one is less aggressive but also rarer. According to statistics, cancer of the ligamentous region occurs in 25-30% of cases.
- Tumor of the lower ligamentous region. This is the rarest type of laryngeal cancer that occurs in only 2% of patients. The location of the tumor complicates the treatment and often leads to trauma to the vocal cords during surgery.
Medical experts have not yet been able to name the exact causes of laryngeal cancer. However, thanks to the results of numerous studies, a number of factors have been identified that can contribute to the development of this disease.
Smoking - both active and passive - significantly increases the chances of developing this type of cancer. The more smoking experience, the higher the risk of cancer development is. However, when stopping smoking, the risk significantly reduces.
The more amount of alcohol a person drinks, the higher is the risk of tumor formation in the larynx, especially if alcohol consumption is combined with smoking. In this case, the type of alcohol does not matter.
Work in hazardous workplaces significantly increases the risk of developing cancer, especially in the upper respiratory tract. At risk are people who are constantly working in the production of nickel, sulfuric acid and asbestos.
The older the person, the higher the risk of cancer development. At risk are men aged 50 years and older.
Some studies have shown that people who do not eat enough fruits and vegetables are more prone to developing laryngeal cancer.
If a person in family history has relatives with cancer of the upper respiratory tract and head, then the likelihood of a laryngeal tumor is much higher.
This virus is more often associated with the development of cervical cancer, but recent studies have shown that it can cause laryngeal cancer as well.
Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer
To determine the type and stage of laryngeal cancer, the following types of diagnostics are used:
- Laryngoscopy. This method is used to determine pathological changes in the larynx.
- Biopsy. This method is also known as histological examination, in which tissue samples are taken from distant sections of the larynx to determine the presence of cancer cells.
- Ultrasound Examination. With the help of this examination, it is possible to determine the structure of neoplasms.
- MRI and computed tomography. With the help of these examinations, the degree of spread of cancer, the presence of metastases and the connection of the tumor with other organs and systems is determined.
Thanks to the latest and most modern equipment, employees of the Caucasus Medical Center effectively use each of the above diagnostic methods. Therefore, referring to our medical center, you can be sure of the correct and timely diagnosis.
Nowadays, the Caucasus Medical Center is equitably considered the leader in the region in the field of cancer treatment, which is carried out with the latest equipment using the most modern and proven international methods.
Treatment of laryngeal cancer abroad
Laryngeal cancer is considered one of the most aggressive and dangerous oncological diseases due to the rapid growth of the tumor and the absence of symptoms in the early stages. To increase the chance of cure and patient survival, immediate medical attention of the highest quality is required. In many cases, such as the treatment of laryngeal cancer abroad with the assistance of experienced and highly qualified doctors.
Such are the professionals of the Caucasus Medical Center, who are ready to assist in the treatment of this pathology. Using the latest equipment and advanced technologies, doctors of the center with working experience in clinics in the USA and Germany can not only extend the life of patients with laryngeal cancer but also achieve their full recovery.
Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer
This type of treatment is considered one of the oldest and most traditional methods. Its effectiveness depends on the grade and type of laryngeal cancer.
Surgical treatment of laryngeal cancer abroad, at the Caucasus Medical Center, gives hope for the majority of patients with the mentioned diagnosis to recover and live a full life. Thanks to the professionalism and qualifications of the surgical oncologists of the center with many years of experience in surgical practice, laryngeal cancer is no longer a sentence for most patients.
Radiation therapy is a method of treating laryngeal cancer, which is usually used during the later grades or in combination with surgical treatment. According to statistics, radiotherapy has been and remains the most effective method of treating this type of cancer.
Radiotherapy is one of the leading areas of the Caucasus Medical Center, using which is possible to treat even the later grades of laryngeal cancer. Radiotherapy at the Caucasus Medical Center is carried out using the latest equipment with the involvement of experienced surgical oncologists and using the most advanced international techniques.