Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition during which abnormal cell growth occurs on the surface of the mucous membrane of the cervix or endocervical canal. This anomaly is most often found in women under the age of 30 but can be developed at any age, so it is important to regularly undergo examinations by highly qualified specialists in order to determine the anomaly and begin treatment of cervical dysplasia in time. This article discusses the types of dysplasia, causes and first symptoms of the disease, what methods of diagnosis and treatment are now practiced in the best clinics, and what is forbidden during cervical dysplasia.
Types of Cervical Dysplasia
According to the generally accepted classification, three types of cervical dysplasia are distinguished:
- CIN I (L-SIL) - a mild form of dysplasia during which patients have unexpressed modifications in the structure of the epithelium (1/3 of the epithelial layer is damaged). As a rule, with timely diagnosis and the correct treatment, a mild form of dysplasia is completely treatable and does not transform into more severe forms of the disease;
- CIN II (H-SIL) - a moderate form of dysplasia during which the half of the epithelial layer is affected;
- CIN III (H-SIL) is a severe form of cervical dysplasia. At this stage, the epithelial layer is already damaged by 2/3 with noticeable modifications in the structure of the epithelium. Morphological changes are very noticeable. This stage is characterized by the appearance of pathologic mitoses, as well as the presence of large hyperchromic nuclei cells.
An accurate determination of the stage and form of the disease, followed by the correct prescription of treatment, can help to completely get rid of the disease, as well as reduce the negative consequences. This is the main goal of the specialists at CMC Hospital, who always precisely study each medical history, prescribe the necessary treatment for cervical dysplasia and advise patients what is forbidden during the disease.
Causes of cervical dysplasia and risk factors
Experts identify several factors that provoke the development of dysplasia:
- Diseases that suppress the immune system (diabetes, HIV);
- Genetic predisposition to the disease;
- The use of drugs that suppress the immune system;
- Human papillomavirus (HPV);
- A large number of sexual partners, including the presence of several sexual partners;
- Early onset of sexual life (under 18 years); until the completion of the formation of all necessary functions of the mucous membranes;
- Repeated birth-giving or frequent terminations of pregnancy, when the cervix was injured, it may lead to cervical dysplasia. Erosion, in such cases is 90% present;
- Chronic yeast infections;
- Tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse;
- Prolonged use of contraceptives that affect the hormonal background, in particular tablets;
- Poor basic hygiene.
If after reading the proposed list of risk factors, you find factors that are directly related to your lifestyle, then be attentive to your body and listen to its changes. Below are the most common symptoms, the presence of which should accelerate your visit to a doctor, for the timely diagnosis and treatment of cervical dysplasia.
Symptoms and first signs
The treatment of cervical dysplasia is complicated because of the fact that this disease is difficult to diagnose during the initial stages 1 and 2, when the anomaly only develops and there are no noticeable symptoms. Often this disease begins to bother patients when it already reaches stage 3.
Of the most common symptoms of cervical dysplasia, the following are distinguished:
- Frequent discharge, which is accompanied by unpleasant odor;
- Vaginitis, that has a progressive nature and is not treatable;
- Pain during intercourse and spotting after;
- Feeling of itching and burning inside the vagina;
- Pulling pain in the lower abdomen.
Given the asymptomatic development of the disease during the early stages, it is important to undergo a gynecological examination once a year by a specialist who can determine the presence of pathology in time.
Diagnosis of Cervical Dysplasia at CMC Hospital
For initial diagnosis and prescription of the subsequent treatment of cervical dysplasia, gynecologists at the CMC Hospital use a PAP smear, also known as a cytological smear, and the Pap test. This is a completely painless procedure, during which the gynecologist takes a smear from the surface of the cervix. After that, the laboratory assistant examines the taken smear under a microscope, while studying the shape, quantity, size, composition, and location of cells.
A basic study such as a PAP smear can help the detection of not only the development of cervical dysplasia, but also other gynecological diseases. That is why it is recommended for all women who reached 18 years to carry out this test annually.
If the PAP smear shows the presence of abnormal cell development, then specialists at CMC Hospital perform colposcopy. If necessary, a gynecologist can take a small piece of cervical tissue to send to the laboratory for further examination. This process is called a biopsy.
Thus, only after a comprehensive examination, gynecologists at CMC Hospital make a diagnosis of cervical dysplasia.
Treatment of cervical dysplasia abroad at CMC Hospital
The treatment of cervical dysplasia depends on the form of development of the pathology. Before prescribing treatment, gynecologists at CMC Hospital first carry out a comprehensive examination with the above-mentioned diagnostic methods to determine the most appropriate treatment regimen for each patient.
During the first stage of dysplasia, special treatment may not be prescribed, because the mild form of the disease usually goes away on its own, but it is important to be constantly monitored by a specialist. To control the dynamics of the disease, it is recommended to take a PAP smear once every 3-6 months.
To treat more severe forms of cervical dysplasia, specialists at CMC Hospital prescribe:
- Drug treatment in order to conduct anti-inflammatory therapy of concomitant infections and normalize the hormonal background of the patient;
- Cryodestruction – freezing of abnormal cells;
- Laser therapy - removal of pathology using a laser;
- Electrosurgery (also known as excision, biopsy, vulcanization) is a surgical intervention during which the pathology is removed using an electric knife or an electric loop.
With timely and correctly prescribed treatment, cervical dysplasia is completely curable, but relapses are also possible. If treatment is not carried out, dysplasia can go into more advanced forms, potentially turning into cancer. In this case, the supervision of an onco gynecologist is required.
As for the rehabilitation period, it depends on many factors, including the degree of pathology, patient’s age, timeliness and accuracy of the prescribed treatment. With medical treatment of the initial stage of dysplasia, the rehabilitation period takes about a month until the patient's body is completely restored. During more severe stages of dysplasia, when surgery is performed, the rehabilitation period takes longer. As a rule, in such cases, the average rehabilitation period after surgical treatment of cervical dysplasia is about 2-3 months.
After completing the course of treatment, gynecologists at CMC Hospital continue to monitor patients during and after the rehabilitation period to ensure that there is no relapse.
Prevention of cervical dysplasia
According to statistics, cervical cancer, which an advanced form of dysplasia can lead to, is in second place among oncological diseases of women (the first place is taken by breast cancer). To prevent the development of pathology, the following preventive actions should be performed:
- Regularly gynecological examinations (One time per year);
- Human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV);
- Timely treat of gynecological diseases;
- Cervical screening (1-3 times per year);
- Quitting smoking and excessive drinking;
- Strengthen immunity;
- Leading a healthy lifestyle (proper nutrition, good sleep, sports);
- Don’t change sexual partners frequently;
- Use of condoms during sexual intercourse.
Thus, you can prevent the development of pathology and avoid the subsequent treatment of cervical dysplasia, while maintaining your health.