Thyroid cancer is an oncological disease that is characterized by a malignant tumor in the epithelium of the thyroid gland. This disease is quite common, as it accounts for more than 1% of all oncological diseases, and is diagnosed more often in women than in men. The disease most often occurs in middle-aged people in the interval between 40 and 60 years. With the timely detection of a tumor and the beginning of treatment, the possibility of a complete cure is almost 90%.
Thyroid cancer treatment abroad is an opportunity to receive the highest quality medical care and get rid of cancer without further complications.
Causes and first signs of thyroid cancer
The reasons for the occurrence of thyroid cancer are still not exactly known, but doctors consider as risk factors chronic thyroid diseases, heredity, hormonal disorders, iodine deficiency, the presence of goiter, prolonged exposure of the body to radiation, etc.
In the early stages, this disease is almost asymptomatic, which complicates the diagnosis at an early stage. One of the earliest signs is an enlargement of swollen lymph nodes and the appearance of a neoplasm in the thyroid gland. As the disease develops, other symptoms appear: cough, difficulty swallowing, voice change, shortness of breath, etc.
Due to the fact that the above symptoms of thyroid cancer appear already in the late stages of this pathology, if they occur, you must urgently consult an endocrinologist for a thorough examination.
Thyroid Cancer: Stages
Four stages of thyroid cancer exist:
- First stage. The appearance of new growth in the thyroid gland with a diameter of not more than 2 cm. Usually it is densely elastic in consistency and not painful when palpated.
- Second stage. The new growth increases in size and its diameter can reach 4 cm. At this stage, the patient may already experience some discomfort and feel the changes that occur in the body. In some cases, already at the second stage, the appearance and proliferation of metastases to other organs is possible. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that when diagnosing a disease in the second stage, the possibility of a complete cure reaches 95%.
- Third stage. In addition to the further growth of the tumor, severe symptoms of the disease begin to occur, the most common of which are shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing and an increase in cervical lymph nodes.
- Fourth stage. The last stage of thyroid cancer is characterized by the appearance of secondary foci. The general condition of the patient rapidly worsens, which in most cases is caused by the growth of metastases.
Types of Thyroid Cancer
There are several types of thyroid cancer that differ in symptoms and the course of illness:
This is the least aggressive type and the most common type of this pathology and makes up to 80% of all cases of thyroid cancer. Papillary cancer responds well to treatment and practically does not characterize with spread of metastasis. Patients who have undergone this type of cancer, after treatment, live on average for at least 25 years.
In 70% of cases, this type of cancer is characterized as quite aggressive and characterizes by proliferation of metastases. In most cases, metastases appear in other organs and lymph nodes. However, this type of thyroid cancer is highly treatable with radioactive iodine.
This is the most dangerous type of thyroid cancer, but it is quite rare: it is diagnosed in no more than 7% of patients. Metastases during this form usually grow in the muscles and trachea, which complicates the course and treatment of the disease. The most effective type of treatment is surgical.
This is the rarest type of thyroid cancer: only 3% of patients are diagnosed with this form. Aggressiveness and rapid progression of the disease are its main characteristics. The anaplastic thyroid cancer is difficult to treat, so the prognosis in most cases are extremely unfavorable.
There are a number of specific factors that contribute to the onset and development of this disease. Among them are:
- Hormonal changes, especially in women, which usually occur during pregnancy or menopause;
- Radiation therapy or prolonged exposure to radiation;
- Hereditary predisposition;
- Age over 40;
- Presence of bad habits (smoking, alcohol abuse);
- Being stressed for extended periods;
- Work in hazardous facility;
- Gender predisposition: thyroid cancer is diagnosed in women 2 times more often than in men
In addition to the above mentioned, thyroid cancer can occur in case of the presence of the following diseases and pathologies:
- Female reproductive system diseases;
- Breast tumors;
- Thyroid nodules and benign neoplasms;
- Multiple endocrine neoplasia.
Diagnosis of Thyroid Cancer: Caucasus Medical Center
The modern diagnosis and treatment of thyroid cancer are carried out by highly qualified specialists using the most advanced methods and technologies. The standard diagnosis of thyroid cancer includes the following steps:
- Initial consultation with an otolaryngologist and oncologist, whose task is to assess the clinical picture;
- Ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland, which allows the determination of the size of the formation, and the number of nodes in the gland. However, it is not possible to identify whether the tumor is malignant or benign using ultrasound;
- Isotopic scanning. During this examination, iodine radioisotopes are inserted into the patient's body, after which a thyroid gland is scanned to determine its structure and condition.
- Thyroid biopsy. This method is considered as the most accurate, as using immunochemical and histological studies can determine the nature of the tumor and the presence of cancerous cells;
- Detailed blood count.
Treatment method is selected based on the diagnostic results. At the moment, the treatment of this type pf cancer is carried out in four ways: surgical (removal of the tumor and adjacent tissues), treatment with radioactive iodine (often used after surgery to destroy residual cancer cells), radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Today, the Caucasus Medical Center is the undisputed leader in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, including thyroid cancer. Highly qualified oncologists provide the widest range of oncological medical services. Thanks to high-tech laboratory and instrumental diagnostics, it is possible to determine the stage and type of disease and prescribe the most effective treatment with a high probability of a favorable outcome.
Thyroid Cancer Treatment Abroad
Treatment of thyroid cancer abroad is an opportunity to receive highly qualified medical care using the most effective and modern methods of treatment and diagnosis.
The Caucasus Medical Center provides oncological patients with a full range of high-tech diagnostics and laboratory tests. The medical specialists of the oncology department of the clinic are doctors of international level with huge experience in clinical practice abroad, including countries such as Germany and the USA.
Entrusting the treatment of thyroid cancer to doctors of the Caucasus Medical Center, you can be sure that you have a highest chance of a full recovery.
Nowadays, surgical treatment of thyroid cancer is the most effective method during which the removal of the tumor of the gland to the maximum extent is carried out. In some cases, lymph node dissection (removal of the lymph nodes and adipose tissue) and removal of the thyroid gland itself (both full and partial) may also be required.
Oncological surgeons of the Caucasus Medical Center are highly qualified specialists of international level with many years of experience in surgical interventions. Surgical treatment of the thyroid gland abroad at the Caucasus Medical Center is a guarantee of high-tech medical care using the best therapeutic surgical techniques based on the latest medical research.
The team of the surgical department constantly monitors the latest achievements in oncological surgery in leading publications and journals of the world, which contributes to the continuous development, professional development and achievement of the highest results in the surgical treatment of cancer.
Radiotherapy, namely treatment with radioactive iodine, is a method of treating thyroid cancer, which is usually used after surgery to destroy residual cancer cells. Usually, radiotherapy is appointed no later than 6 months after the initial operation to remove the tumor.
Radiology is one of the leading areas of the oncological department of the Caucasus Medical Center. The radiology procedure is carried out using the latest generation equipment. Thanks to the highly qualified doctors and innovative radiotherapeutic methods, the treatment of thyroid cancer in our medical center represents the highest results.
Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer is usually prescribed in cases of late diagnosis of the disease, as well as in the diagnosis of an aggressive form of the disease. Chemotherapy is also the only treatment for thyroid cancer if it is inoperable. In some cases, chemotherapy may also be an additional treatment that follows the surgical method and radiotherapy.
The Caucasus Medical Center is successfully using chemotherapy as an effective method for cancer treatment, including thyroid cancer. The head of the oncology and hematology department is Ms. Aida Gozalova, a highly qualified specialist of international level with many years of clinical practice experience at one of the leading clinics in Germany.
Treatment of thyroid cancer at the Caucasus Medical Center is the beginning of a successful path to a full recovery and a returning to a normal life.